Anopheles (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939

Anopheles freeborni
Anopheles freeborni © James Gathany / CDC


Anopheles freeborni larval densities have been shown to have a positive association with plant cover, indicating that vegetation is a key characteristic of their larval habitats. This is reflected by the species’ ready utilization of rice fields, although significantly higher numbers of adult An. freeborni are found in riparian and mixed habitats than in rice and pasture habitats.

Resting and feeding preferences

Anopheles freeborni is reported to be an opportunistic feeder and host availability appears to be key in determining blood meal source. For example, An. freeborni females collected in cattle areas contained a high proportion of bovine blood when compared to sites of human habitation, near a rice production area, where no bovine blood was found but 35% of the sampled females had fed on dogs. This suggests that the species is zoophilic, although a preference is not always found. Resting mosquitoes have been collected from farmyard sheds, abandoned domestic animal shelters, house porches, artificial shelters, bridges and culverts, indicating an outdoor resting preference.

Vectorial capacity

Anopheles freeborni is considered to be a dominant malaria vector species.

Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Rubio-Palis, Y., Manguin, S., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Van Boeckel, T.P., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2010). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites & Vectors, 3:72

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper